Long-standing gingivitis can turn into periodontal disease. There are a number of types of periodontal disease and they all affect the tissues supporting the teeth. Gum disease affects most people at some time during their life. It is usually caused by a build-up of plaque on teeth. There are two main stages of gum disease. 15 Tooth Problems: Cavities, Stained Teeth, Periodontal Disease and Heart Health.